Population: 10.018.735 (2000)
Traffic Code: 34
The god and human, nature and art are together in there, they have
created such a perfect place that it is valuable to see."
Lamartines famous poetic line reveals his love for İstanbul,
describing the embracing of two continents, with one arm reaching
out to Asia and the other to Europe.
İstanbul, once known as the capital of capital cities, has many
unique features. It is the only city in the world to straddle two
continents, and the only one to have been a capital during two
consecutive empires - Christian and Islamic. Once was capital of the
Ottoman Empire, İstanbul still remains the commercial, historical
and cultural pulse of Turkey, and its beauty lies in its ability to
embrace its contradictions. Ancient and modern, religious and
secular, Asia and Europe, mystical and earthly all co-exist here.
Its variety is one of İstanbuls greatest attractions: The ancient
mosques, palaces, museums and bazaars reflect its diverse history.
The thriving shopping area of Taksim buzzes with life and
entertainment. And the serene beauty of the İstanbul strait, Princes
Islands and parks bring a touch of peace to the otherwise chaotic
The İstanbul strait
This horn-shaped estuary divides European İstanbul. One of the best
natural harbours in the world, it was once the centre for the
Byzantine and Ottoman navies and commercial shipping interests.
Today, attractive parks and promenades line the shores, a
picturesque scene especially as the sun goes down over the water. At
Fener and Balat, neighbourhoods midway up the Golden Horn, there are
entire streets filled with old wooden houses, churches, and
synagogues dating from Byzantine and Ottoman times. The Orthodox
Patriarchy resides at Fener and a little further up the Golden Horn
at Eyup, are some wonderful examples of Ottoman architecture. Muslim
pilgrims from all over the world visit Eyup Mosgue and Tomb of Eyup,
the Prophet Mohammeds standard bearer, and it is one of the holiest
places in Islam. The area is a still a popular burial place, and the
hills above the mosque are dotted with modern gravestones
interspersed with ornate Ottoman stones. The Pierre Loti Cafe, at
the top of hill overlooking the shrine and the Golden Horn, is a
wonderful place to enjoy the tranquility of the view.
Beyoğlu and Taksim: Beyoğlu is an interesting example of a
district with European-influenced architecture, from a century
before. Europes second oldest subway, Tunel was built by the French
in 1875, must be also one of the shortest offering a one-stop ride
to start of Taksim. Near to Tunel is the Galata district, whose
Galata Tower became a famous symbols of İstanbul, and the top of
which offers a tremendous 180 degree view of the city.
From the Tunel area to Taksim square, is one of the citys focal
points for shopping, entertainment and urban promenading: İstiklal
Caddesi is a fine example of the contrasts and compositions of
İstanbul; fashion shops, bookshops, cinemas, markets, restaurants
and even hand-carts selling trinkets and simit (sesame bread snack)
ensure that the street is packed throughout the day until late into
the night. The old tramcars re-entered into service, which shuttle
up and down this fascinating street, and otherwise the street is
entirely pedestrianised. There are old embassy buildings,
Galatasaray High School, the colourful ambience of Balık Pazarı (Fish
Bazaar) and restaurants in Çiçek Pasaji (Flower Passage). Also on
this street is the oldest church in the area, St Marys Draperis
dating back to 1789, and the Franciscan Church of St Antoine,
demolished and then rebuilt in 1913.
The street ends at Taksim Square, a big open plaza, the hub of
modern İstanbul and always crowded, crowned with an imposing
monument celebrating Ataturk and the War of Independence. The main
terminal of the new subway is under the square, adjacent is a noisy
bus terminal, and at the north end is the Ataturk Cultural Centre,
one of the venues of the İstanbul Theatre Festival. Several five-star
hotels are dotted around this area, like the Hyatt, Intercontinental
and Hilton (the oldest of its kind in the city). North of the square
is the İstanbul Military Museum.
Taksim and Beyoğlu have for centuries been the centre of nightlife,
and now there are many lovely bars and clubs off Istiklal Cadesi,
including some of the only gay venues in the city. Beyoğlu is also
at the centre of the more bohemian arts scene.
Sultanahmet: Many places of tourist interest are concentrated
in Sultanahmet, in heart of the Imperial Centre of the Ottoman
Empire. The most important places in this area, all of which are
described in detail in the Places of Interest section, are Topkapı
Palace, Aya Sofya, Sultanahmet Mosgue (the Blue Mosque), the
Hippodrome, Kapalı Carşı (Covered Market), Yerebatan Sarnıcı and the
Museum of Islamic Art.
In addition to this wonderful selection of historical and
architectural sites, Sultanahmet also has a large concentration of
carpet and souvenir shops, hotels and guesthouses, cafes, bars and
restaurants, and travel agents.
Princes Islands: Also known as İstanbul Islands, there are
eight within one hour from the city, in the Marmara Sea. Boats ply
the islands from Sirkeci, Kabataş and Bostancı, with more services
during the summer. These islands, on which monasteries were
established during the Byzantine period, was a popular summer
retreat for palace officials. It is still a popular escape from the
city, with wealthier owning summer houses.
Büyükada The largest and most popular one in İstanbul is
Büyükada (the Great Island). Large wooden mansions still remain from
the 19th century when wealthy Greek and Armenian bankers built them
as a holiday villas. The island has always been a place
predominantly inhabited by minorities.
Buyukada has long had a history of people coming here in exile or
retreat; its most famous guest being Leon Trotsky, who stayed for
four years writing The History of the Russian Revolution. The
monastery of St George also played host to the granddaughter of
Empress Irene, and the royal princess Zoe, in 1012.
The island consists of two hills, both surmounted by monasteries,
with a valley between. Motor vehicles are banned, so getting around
the island can be done by graceful horse and carriage, leaving from
the main square off Isa Celebi Sokak. Bicycles can also be hired.
The southern hill, Yule Tepe, is the quieter of the two and also
home of St Georges Monastery. It consists of a series of chapels on
three levels, the site of which is a building dating back to the
12th century. In Byzantine times it was used as an asylum, with iron
rings on the church floors used to restrain patients. On the
northern hill is the monastery İsa Tepe, a 19th century house.
The entire island is lively and colourful, with many restaurants,
hotels, tea houses and shops. There are very big well-kept houses,
trim gardens, and pine groves, as well as plenty of beach and picnic
Burgazada It is a smaller and less infrastructured for
tourists.The famous Turkish novelist, Sait Faik Abasıyanık lived
there, and his house has been turned into a museum dedicated to his
work, and retains a remarkable tranquil and hallowed atmosphere.
Heybeliada Island of the Saddlebag, because of its shape,
is loved for its natural beauty and beaches. It also has a highly
prestigious and fashionable watersports club in the northwest of the
island. One of its best-known landmarks is the Greek Orthodox School
of Theology, with an important collection of Byzantine manuscripts.
The school sits loftily on the northern hill, but permission is
needed to enter, from the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in Fener. The
Deniz Harp Okulu, the Naval High School, is on the east side of the
waterfront near the jetty, which was originally the Naval War
Academy set up in 1852, then a high school since 1985. Walking and
cycling are popular here, plus isolated beaches as well as the
public Yöruk Beach, set in a magnificent bay.
There are plenty of good local restaurants and tea houses,
especially along Ayyıldız Caddesi, and the atmosphere is one of a
Environment: Wide beaches of Kilyos at European side of Black
Sea at 25th km. outside the İstanbul, is attracting İstanbul
residents during summer months. Belgrad Forest, inside from Black
Sea, at European Side is the widest forest around İstanbul. İstanbul
residents, at week ends, come here for family picnic with brazier at
its shadows. 7 old water tank and some natural resources in the
region compose a different atmosphere. Moğlova Aqueduct, which is
constructed by Mimar Sinan during 16th century among Ottoman
aqueducts, is the greatest one. 800 m. long Sultan Süleyman Aqueduct,
which is passing over Golf Club, and also a piece of art of Mimar
Sinan is one of the longest aqueducts within Turkey.
Polonezköy, which is 25 km. away from İstanbul, is founded at Asia
coast during 19th century by Polish immigrants. Polonezköy, for
walking in village atmosphere, travels by horse, and tasting
traditional Polish meals served by relatives of initial settlers, is
the resort point of İstanbul residents. Beaches, restaurants and
hotels of Şile at Black Sea coast and 70 km. away from Üsküdar, are
turning this place into one of the most cute holiday places of
İstanbul. Region which is popular in connection with tourism, is the
place where famous Şile cloth is produced.
Bayramoğlu - Darıca Bird Paradise and Botanic Park is a unique
resort place 38 km. away from İstanbul. This gargantuan park with
its trekking roads, restaurants is full of bird species and plants,
coming from various parts of the world.
Sweet Eskihisar fisherman borough, to whose marina can be anchored
by yachtsmen after daily voyages in Marmara Sea is at south east of
İstanbul. Turkey's 19th century famous painter, Osman Hamdi Bey's
house in borough is turned into a museum. Hannibal's tomb between
Eskihisar and Gebze is one of the sites around a Byzantium castle.
There are lots of İstanbul residents' summer houses in popular
holiday place 65 km. away from İstanbul, Silivri. This is a huge
holiday place with magnificent restaurants, sports and health
centers. Conference center is also attracting businessmen, who are
escaping rapid tempo of urban life for "cultural tourism" and
business - holiday mixed activities. Scheduled sea bus service is
connecting İstanbul to Silivri.
Islands within Marmara Sea, which is adorned with nine islands, was
the banishing place of the Byzantium princes. Today they are now
wealthy İstanbul residents' escaping places for cool winds during
summer months and 19th century smart houses. Biggest one of the
islands is Büyükada. You can have a marvelous phaeton travel between
pine trees or have a swim within one of the numerous bays around
Other popular islands are Kınalı, Sedef, Burgaz and Heybeliada.
Regular ferry voyages are connecting islands to both Europe and Asia
coasts. There is a rapid sea bus service from Kabataş during summers.